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Tiempos Verbales: Presente y Pasado Perfecto

Present Perfect

Uso

El presente perfecto no resulta fácil de entender para los aprendices de una segunda lengua. Es una combinación del pasado y presente. Una acción del pasado tiene algo que ver con el presente.

1) Resultado de una acción en el pasado que es importante en le presente (No es importante cuando esta acción sucedió.)

 

I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)
Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Has Peggy been there or not?)

2) Acciones completadas recientemente

 

He has just played handball. (It is over now.)

3) Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y todavía continúan - mayormente con since (punto en el tiempo) o for (periodo de tiempo)



We have lived in Canada since 1986. (We still live there.)
We have lived in Canada for 20 years.

4) Acompañado con lately, recently, yet

 

I have been to London recently. (no specific point of time)
He has not written the e-mail yet. (He has not done it.)

Palabras Claves

Estas palabras te dicen cual tiempo tienes que usar. Para el Presente Perfecto lasa siguientes palabras son usadas frecuentemente:


just
yet
never
already
ever
so far
up to now
recently
since
for


Formas del Presente Perfecto

El presente perfecto se forma con have y el past participle

have/has + past participle


Oraciones Afirmativas


 I have played football.         We have gone to the supermarket.


 She has played football.       He has gone to the supermarket.            


Oraciones Negativas 

  I have not played football.          We have not gone to the supermarket.


 She has not played football.        He has not gone to the supermarket.     


Preguntas 

 Have you played football?            Have they gone to the supermarket?

 

Has she played football?                Has he gone to the supermarket?          

 

Formas Largas del Presente Perfecto y sus contracciones

affirmative
long form
short form
I have gone
I've gone
he has gone
he's gone

negative (have not)
long form
short form
I have not gone
I haven't gone or I've not gone
he has not gone
he hasn't gone or he's not gone

 

Past Perfect

 Uso

1) Junto con el Pasado Simple

Cuando dos acciones pasadas se combinan la primera acción; la cual fue completada antes que la segunda comenzara, va en Pasado Perfecto.


The lesson had started when we arrived.             After Amy had gone home it started to rain.


2) El Pasado equivalente del  Presente Perfecto

He had played hockey.

Formas del Pasado Perfecto

El pasado perfecto se forma con had y el past participle
had + past participle

Oraciones Afirmativas

                         They had gone home                    She had played hockey

Oraciones Negativas

                       They had not gone home                    She had not played hockey

Preguntas

                        Had they gone home?                   Had she played hockey?

Formas Largas del Pasado Perfecto y sus contracciones

affirmative
long form
short form
I had gone
I'd gone
negative (had not)
long form
short form
I had not gone
I hadn't gone or I'd not gone






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